How to make toast: Step by Step Guide

  1. Start with a loaf of bread and a toaster.
  2. Plug toaster into a wall socket and switch on.
  3. Open sliced bread packet and remove required number of bread slices from the bag.
  4. Place slices of bread, vertically into each of the toast slots, so that the bread does not become misshapen.
  5. Set the toasting time by turning the numbered dial to 4-6 (medium).
  6. With the bread correctly in each slot and the required setting selected, push the leaver on the side down until it clicks and remains down.
  7. Monitor bread to make sure it does not burn. If burning occurs press the cancel button located next to the temperature gauge.
  8. When toast is ready the leaver and the toast (bread) will protrude from the top of the toaster. If the toast doesn’t rise from the toaster after it has popped, raise the leaver, to manually access your toast.
  9. Remove toast from toaster (WARNING: toast and toaster may be hot).
  10. Prepare and enjoy.


Lecture 1 – Web 2.0 and Convergence

Lecture by Sarah Waterson


There has been a shift in the way we use the internet. This shift is known as Web 2.0 and is in the way we think about how we use the new internet as “a form of publishing to a form of enabling functionalities”. It allows people to interact with their internet experience more to “provide a  community and content”.  The web is no longer just an information source that people gain access to but it is now rather a platform for communication between people all around the world because of the change in the way web designers are structuring their websites for more greater user involvement, control and input in its content and media.

Although the internet has changed rapidly in how we are using it, the way we are accessing our internet is also changing dramatically as the devices have been getting increasingly smaller and faster e.g. Mobile Phones. This progress in devices is very important because it is now changing the way we can interact with Web 2.0 and how we need to adapt to these changes in Convergence which is the crossover of Communication Networks, Computing Information Technology and Content. Convergent media is how users interact over the Web 2.0 through different devices and media access points or platforms. This is giving users even more greater control to the internet and how it is being designed for their use through different interactive devices.


The most important aspects of Web 2.0 is the dramatic change that web designers have created on society. Today people heavily use the internet for socialising and communication (Facebook, YouTube, etc.) as this resource has become available. It is providing more communication with friends that has never been there before but also less face time with friends. It is now even becoming so readily and easily accessible as phone providers give free usage of common Web 2.0 applications and browsing. It is from the shift in generations as people are finding it easier to talk to someone online in the comfort of privacy rather than having to plan and meet up in person. It has become more efficient to do than anything else.

Web 2.0: Examples

Examples of Web 2.0 include forums, social networking site, blogs, web applications, video sharing and more.
3 key examples of web 2.0 are Wikipedia, iTunes and YouTube. They are as follows:


Wikipedia is an encyclopedia written and updated by its readers where they can collaborate with other readers and update the information for other people to view, read and learn. It shows how Web 2.0 has changed to include people in the creation of websites and its contents from simply having an account and clicking edit.

  1. Log in / Create Account: Allows people to interact with the website by creating a profile to edit webpages in wiki.
  2. Read / Edit: Gives the viewer a chance to either read the documents posted by others or updating/editing the information on the site.
  3. Editing: Shows the reader what they are doing, i.e. Editing Interaction Design.
  4. Edit box: Gives the current documents text and layout to the viewer and allows changes or add ins to be made by inserting new text or images.

Itunes Ping has been introduced over the past year in an update of Itunes where it incorporates a user who has an account to interact with Itunes more by allowing friendships and being able to show your friends what music you like, what music you want and what you think they should listen to and buy.

YouTube is the currently the worlds biggest viewing media of videos. It allows people to create profiles in order for users to upload videos so friends, family and/or the public can view them, comment on them and allows you to subscribe to further videos and your profile.


Web 2.0: Definition

Web 2.0 was a term created in 2004 by Tim O’Reilly and MediaLive International to define the ‘new internet’ and its progress from when it was created as Web 1.0 to what we use it for today. The internet is no longer just a gateway to information but rather it is now in a new generation where the World Wide Web is used for a wider variety of things that emphasise more on human interaction and collaboration. The progression of the internet to its current stage in Web 2.0 has seen the creation of a greater and more successful user experience were people can help to create the internet and its content. This is to give greater control and participation for people in web applications and services to share media, information, social and other aspects of their knowledge and lives.